By Arthur Benjamin
“Arthur Benjamin . . . joyfully indicates you ways to make nature’s numbers dance.”
The Magic of Math is the maths e-book you would like you had in class. utilizing a pleasant collection of examples—from ice-cream scoops and poker arms to measuring mountains and making magic squares—this e-book revels in key mathematical fields together with mathematics, algebra, geometry, and calculus, plus Fibonacci numbers, infinity, and, after all, mathematical magic tips. recognized in the course of the global because the “mathemagician,” Arthur Benjamin mixes arithmetic and magic to make the topic enjoyable, appealing, and simple to appreciate for math fan and math-phobic alike.
“A definitely pleased exploration of mathematics.”
—Publishers Weekly, starred review
“Each [trick] is extra miraculous than the last.”
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Additional resources for The Magic of Math: Solving for x and Figuring Out Why
The Fibonacci numbers. The Lucas numbers fulfill their very own (somewhat easier) model of Binet’s formulation, specifically √ n √ n 1+ five 1− five + Ln = 2 2 placed in a different way, for n ≥ 1, Ln is the integer closest to gn . (This is in step with what we observed prior considering g10 ≈ 123 = L10 . ) we will be able to see extra connections with Fibonacci and Lucas numbers within the desk less than. n 1 2 three four five 6 7 eight nine 10 Fn 1 1 2 three five eight thirteen 21 34 fifty five Ln 1 three four 7 eleven 18 29 forty seven seventy six 123 Fn−1 + Fn+1 three four 7 eleven 18 29 forty seven seventy six 123 Ln−1 + Ln+1 five 10 15 25 forty sixty five one zero five one hundred seventy 275 three eight 21 fifty five one hundred forty four 377 987 2584 6765 Fn L n 1 Fibonacci numbers, Lucas numbers, and a few in their interactions It’s challenging to overlook a number of the styles. for instance, once we upload Fibonacci acquaintances, we get Lucas numbers: Fn−1 + Fn+1 = Ln and once we upload Lucas associates we get five occasions the corresponding Fibonacci quantity, Ln−1 + Ln+1 = 5Fn once we multiply corresponding Fibonacci and Lucas numbers jointly, we get one other Fibonacci quantity! F n L n = F 2n 9780465054725-text. pdf 127 6/29/15 10:28 AM 118 The Magic of Math apart Let’s end up this final courting utilizing the Binet formulation and a bit bit√of algebra (speciﬁcally ( x − y)( x + y) = x2 − y2 ). Letting h = (1 − 5)/2, the Binet formulation for Fibonacci and Lucas numbers will be acknowledged as 1 Fn = √ (g n − hn ) and Ln = g n + hn five once we multiply those expressions jointly, we get 1 1 Fn Ln = √ (g n − hn ) (g n + hn ) = √ g 2n − h2n = F2n five five So the place does the identify “golden ratio” come from? It comes from the golden rectangle under, the place the ratio of the lengthy part to the fast aspect is strictly g = 1. 61803 . . . . 1 zero. 618… 1 1 The golden rectangle produces a smaller rectangle that still has golden proportions If we label the fast aspect as 1 unit and take away a 1-by-1 sq. from the rectangle, then the ensuing rectangle has dimensions 1-by-(g − 1) and the ratio of its lengthy facet to brief part is 1 g−1 = 1 = 1. 61803 . . . = g zero. 61803 . . . hence the smaller rectangle has a similar proportions because the unique rectangle. incidentally, g is the one quantity that has this great estate, because the equation g−1 1 = g signifies that g2 − g − 1 = zero, and by means of the quadratic √ formulation, the single confident quantity that satisﬁes this is often (1 + 5)/2 = g. 9780465054725-text. pdf 128 6/29/15 10:28 AM The Magic of Fibonacci Numbers 119 due to this estate, the golden rectangle is taken into account by way of a few to be the main aesthetically attractive rectangle, and it's been used intentionally by means of quite a few artists, architects, and photographers of their paintings. Luca Pacioli, an established buddy and collaborator of Leonardo da Vinci, gave the golden rectangle the identify “the divine share. ” The Fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio have encouraged many artists, architects, and photographers. (Photo courtesy of Natalya St. Clair) simply because there are such a lot of significant mathematical houses satisﬁed via the golden ratio, there's occasionally an inclination to work out it even in areas the place it doesn’t exist.